Helpful Information when Making White or Wheat Bread


Bread Won’t Rise: Too much flour in the dough, dough too cold, yeast was killed by excessive heat, improper kneading, oven temperature too high, too much salt.

Bread Flops Over the Sides of the Pan: Bread over risen, too much bread dough for pan size, not enough salt.

Thick Crust: Oven temperature was too low, bread was over baked.

Bread has a Strong Yeast Taste and Crumbly Texture: Not kneading long enough.

Rule of Thumb:

1 cup liquid = 1 ½ lb of Dough

1 ½ lb of dough = 8x4x2 pan

1 lb of dough = 7x3x2 pan

Things to Know in making Bread:

Yeast: Yeast is used as a leavening agent.  It feasts on the sugars in the mixture, producing carbon dioxide to raise the dough and make it light.

White Flour: Bread Flour that is unbleached makes the best bread dough

Wheat Flour: Wheat that is high in protein is the best for bread.  Freshly ground makes for a better loaf of bread.

Fat: Fat is the term used for one of the most essential and important ingredients in baking.  Fat imparts richness and tenderness.

Milk: A loaf made with milk has a velvety grain, a browner crust, and a creamy white crumb.  The loaf is softer and stays that way longer than bread made without.

Salt: Salt controls the action of the yeast in dough and strengthens the gluten.  Salt accents the flavor of other ingredients.

Sugar: Sugar increases yeast fermentation, and adds flavor and imparts a rich brown color to the crust.

Potato: Potatoes have many positive effects on bread.  Yeast loves it.  Bread is softer and stays fresher longer, and bread dough with potatoes does not have to be mixed as long as bread without potatoes – amazing, but apparently true.

Proofing: Yeast proofs best when the liquid (water or milk), fat (lard, butter, oil) are heated up to 105° – 110° F, then add the sugar or honey to it. Then add in the yeast. Since sugar feeds on yeast, it’s a helpful tool to make it rise.

Honey: Honey increases yeast fermentation, adds flavor and imparts a rich brown color to the crust.  Bread made with honey stays moist.

Gluten: Gluten is responsible for the elasticity of kneading the dough.  Its part of the magic of bread!

Things to Remember:

There is nothing better than the aroma of fresh bread baking in the oven.  It touches the senses in many different ways.

Bread making is an art.  It can be achieved by anyone who has the patience and desire to learn.  Practice makes progress.

Technique is as important to a delicious loaf of bread as are the ingredients.

Know your equipment and apply the proper techniques.

Bread is best stored at room temperature, in a tightly closed plastic bag.

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